When people think of “cloud” they usually think of file storage, but there are really two pieces—file storage and file execution. Most people are familiar with cloud storage solutions like Dropbox, but would have a harder time spinning up a cloud instance and running R.
Nonetheless, executing code in the cloud is becoming an increasingly important research tool. As an example of the power of cloud computing with Galileo, we recently sped up a bootstrap simulation for a colleague 53x. Within five years, almost all data science is going to be done in the cloud.